The Neolithic 4500-2500ish BCE
The neolithic saw a major upgrade of life in Cornwall called the neolithic revolution, around 4000 BCE. It also saw the beginning of the megalithic age around 3700 BCE, with the modification of the hilltop tors, the ambitious building of the quoits and the early development of such things as placed stones and some cairns.
The Neolithic Revolution
Carn Kenidjack from Chûn Quoit (telephoto shot)
The neolithic revolution, gaining momentum in Cornwall around 4000 BCE, involved influxes of people and ideas, adoption of horticulture, herding and husbandry, and settlement in more rooted territories as population grew - though people still moved seasonally around their patch. They were transiting from being nomadic to transhumant (following a seasonal round around a defined area). Log dwellings were established as winter residences, some family-size and some communal, and they would use tipis, bivouacs and caves too. Sometimes, in summer, they would simply sleep out around a fire.
Creation of woodland clearings increased, and new tool technologies and social dynamics developed. Patches of forest were cut or burned, though they often re-grew within decades once people moved on. Moving on was a necessity because the neolithics had not yet learned how to improve and maintain soil fertility.
Being primarily food and resource gatherers and not wishing to construct permanent dwellings and villages, this movement suited them well. They would time their movements to coincide with the fruiting of trees, the sprouting of mushrooms or the swarming of pilchards. At the quarters and cross-quarters of the year and at fullmoons, they would gather in special places at tors, headlands or ancient great trees that now are long gone.
Horticultural and herding products were an add-on to wild-sourced diets - patches of land on the seasonal round would be weeded, tended and gardened to encourage chosen species. Later, this developed into transhumant horticulture - moving seasonally between stopover residences for different purposes.
Toward the mid-neolithic around 3500 BCE more genuine kind of farming was developing, probably brought in by new people originating from Iberia and Brittany. They used hoes and ards, a primitive plough, clearing rocks from chosen patches of land and establishing small field systems, carrying out land, plant and livestock improvement and building dwellings such as log cabins for winter residence, while using tipis and bivouacs when doing their rounds in summer. Greenstone axes and tools from Mount's Bay have been found as far away as in Essex and Yorkshire - the now-submerged Gear Rock, offshore from the Jubilee Pool in Penzance, was one of these stone factories in those times.
At this time Ireland and the west of Britain formed the centre of activity in these isles, around the Celtic and Irish Seas, with Penwith becoming something of a focal point in the maritime traffic connecting them - St Ives and Mount's Bay would have been the main landing places in Penwith. This was the warmest period of ancient times, with people living in the uplands in summer, concentrating in the northern hills of Penwith. Penwith was a convenient-sized little world, with just two days' trek from one end to the other.
Though these people's lifestyles were simple, this wasn't because they were simple-minded. They understood the movements of the heavens and, by the 3600s, they were beginning to erect large stone structures in the form of quoits. In building quoits they were able to raise capstones many tons in weight above human height. Paradoxically, though these were very early sites, the quoits were the most advanced form of engineering of the whole megalithic age.
Such constructions were metaphysically motivated, and it was in this time that the principles of the megalithic age were established - principles of astronomy and geomancy that were to characterise the next two millennia up to 1500 BCE, continuing in varying forms for three further millennia until the late middle ages - medieval church and cathedral building rested on similar principles to those established in the neolithic.
The neolithic heyday
Carn Galva as seen from Chûn Castle
There was a wave of immigration around 3500 BCE - coming from the Biscay region southwards, Cornwall might have been one of the first places they reached. Archaeologists reckon these were the people who built the early chambered cairns. Society was tribal though incrementally it was becoming somewhat stratified: those with knowledge, skills and initiative or the descendants of outstanding individuals became the new elites.
Still, the inhabitants of West Penwith were all intermarried and related, and there was a clan communality and mutuality to life in those days. Wealth and power were held by the leaderships, but this was clan wealth and power that they held, and people were not subject to the abuses of power and depredations that we later became so familiar with.
Wealth took the form of land, animal pedigrees and seed stocks, tools, boats, ornaments, dwellings and comforts such as furs, decorated items, woven and felted woollens or even nuggets of gold picked up from the land and fashioned. Ancestry and gene stock were forms of wealth and privilege too, as were knowledge or spiritual attainment (what Maoris call mana or the magical power of personality and integrity).
Humans began changing the face of the land: clearings and trackways developed, and constructed sacred sites were built in the form of tor enclosures, quoits and perhaps even the earliest few chambered cairns. People were investing energy in capital improvements. The biggest energy-investments were in what we now would call 'sacred sites' - though the neolithics saw no significant difference between sacredness and practicality in the way that we do.
Attitudinally they were beginning to impact more on nature, building and moving things around and developing an increasing urge to make a mark, to mould reality and leave remains for posterity. They still felt like guests in a big nature-dominated world though - and they were.
Regional travel and exchange were common in summer, using sea-going paddle-powered and sailing boats like coracles, canoes and curraghs to sail to France and up the Irish Sea, the Severn Sea and the English Channel. Knowledge elites evolved - shamans, wisewomen, healers, keepers of histories, artisans and builders. Advanced thinking on time and tide, medicine, mathematics, place-knowledge, husbandry and engineering was evolving rapidly.
There's something strange in this, and it is demonstrated in the building of the quoits between 3700 and 3500 BCE. Of all the challenges surmounted in Cornwall during the whole two-millennia megalithic era, quoits involved the most advanced engineering effort of all - raising a heavy, multi-ton capstone onto stone uprights. This involved serious planning, preparation, execution and social collaboration.
So from an engineering viewpoint, the most complex structures came first, with the quoits, and the later menhirs and stone circles were from an engineering viewpoint less strenuous, even though they were many more in number. However, in terms of complex knowledge, the stone circles and menhirs of the bronze age display far more advanced theoretical thinking.
Chûn Quoit looking west, with Carn Eanes behind
These people perceived an afterlife, a feeling that the ancestors held the tribe safe, stable and protected. The bones of the deceased, at least of revered ones, were stripped of flesh with stone knives and by sky-burial (skeletons picked by scavenging birds), then they were used in ceremonies and probably stored in chambered cairns.
This wasn't morbid or sentimental but an expression of a sense of posterity and continuity. Bones and rocks symbolised enduring verities, suggesting another reality, 'the unborn and the undying' - the stillness beyond time, growth and decay. The lineage and soul of the tribe were thus strengthened and ensured. These bones were the tribal archives, the memory-sticks and relics of the genetic inheritance of the people.
The ancestors were alive in a parallel world. Living people were their ancestors' descendants, carrying their genes, family patterns and identity. The life of the tribe was a joint effort between humans, nature and the world beyond.
People saw themselves as an integral part of nature and its periodicities, totally affected by it. Trees, rocks and weather systems were seen as intelligent beings and sacredness lay within all things. But they were also developing specialist skills and knowledge to help deal with life's changes and challenges and accumulating a slowly growing mastery over their lives.
Their intuitive and dowsing abilities were used in the location, orientation and design of early sacred sites, though they also thought this through quite carefully, since they sited at least some quoits so that the sun at solstice or the moon at lunar maximum could be seen rising or setting over prominent marker-points on the horizon. The principle of orientation and alignment of sacred sites was established in the neolithic, around the time of the building of the quoits and tor enclosures.
Life was at times tough, sometimes blessed, and they sought to find out how and why life went as it did and how to make the best of it.
They also were accruing a sense of human distinctiveness. They had developed a need to define dedicated human spaces in the engulfing vastness of nature by establishing special places and centres of activity or sacredness - human places. They were beginning tentatively to alter nature and change the face of the land. But not much yet.
The magic circle
Around 3700 BCE and after, the neolithics enclosed some of their hilltop sites with stone and rock walls and banks - these were the tor enclosures, such as those at Carn Brea, Carn Galva, Trencrom Hill, Carn Kenidjack and St Michael's Mount.
They drew a line around their space to distinguish inside from outside, higher from lower and human space from nature, to consecrate the hilltop enclosures and perhaps also to keep wild animals out and children in.
These banks will have acted as a sort of 'magic circle' around each of the hills. Tor enclosures were sacred places, outside and above the wooded normality below, and with a panoramic view. The sky-spirits, the ancestors and stars were close by.
Like Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor, West Penwith is overlooked by a number of granite tors. Tor enclosures were the first major constructed sacred sites in the peninsula. The best known is at Carn Brea, outside Penwith (near Camborne) yet visible from it. In Penwith there were Carn Galva, Carn Kenidjack, Trencrom Hill and St Michael's Mount.
The tors started out as well-visited hilltops standing above the forest cover, enabling a god's-eye view over the otherwise ubiquitous, leafy forest. Landscape panoramas were important to the neolithics' sanity and sense of geography. The tors were meeting and ceremonial places close to the spirits and the stellar worlds.
They were not permanent living places, though in summer and at special times people probably stayed there or nearby. The tors were first used around 3800 BCE, and then they were enclosed with stone banks later on around 3700. At first they were probably open-access, though when enclosing walls were built, arguably a selectivity was creeping in which, by the late neolithic, symptomised a more stratified society. The tor enclosures might later on have been reserved for druids, initiates or invitees only. But everyone probably went there at special times, or for rites of passage or educational purposes - not least, star-gazing.
The top of Trencrom Hill, with Trink Hill (left) and Rosewall Hill behind
These people lived materially simple lives, yet their knowledge wasn't rudimentary. An understanding of astronomy, the patterns and cycles of nature, natural medicine, crafts, artisanry, husbandry and horticulture was a necessity. Advanced thought was clearly present, hinted at by the design of quoits and chambered cairns.
After the Piora Oscillation, lasting 200-300 years from 3200 BCE, population and forest clearance increased and building ancient sites in new, formerly wooded places followed. Stone circles became the centre of attention, later in the bronze age. The tors remained as places of initiation or retreat, but they lost their importance and focality.
It is often thought that Carn Brea, occupied for 300 years, came to a violent end with fighting and burning, but this is inconclusive since its walls and water sources were inadequate for defence. It might instead have burned accidentally or could have undergone a ritual burning for cleansing or closedown (like the demolition of a building).
See also: Neolithic Tor Enclosures
Quoits (dolmens) are mysterious structures, found across Eurasia. Customarily they are regarded as chambered mounds that have eroded away, revealing the stones underneath. This is unlikely since none are half-eroded, and other mounds don't generally erode like that. This notion arose probably because archaeologists couldn't figure out what they were really built for, resorting instead to funerary reasons, for want of anything else.
Zennor Quoit - a fallen shadow of its former self
Quoits are usually connected with funerary rites, but this is probably only half-true. That is, sky-burials and death rituals might have happened there, but this probably wasn't their primary purpose. Quoits have a large capstone placed on top of vertical stones, usually with a gap at one end and a blocking stone at the other. Some dowsers see them as earth-energy devices where an up-welling energy-stream is capped and sent out horizontally across the land. Perhaps it was a kind of esoteric oil well for enhancing land-fertility or human fortunes.
Quoits were probably multi-purpose, and they remain an open question. Conceivably they were used as energy-chambers where illnesses could be treated, seeds could be upgraded and spiritual empowerments could take place. They might have been places to go to die, or places of magic and initiation. They might have acted like a Faraday Cage, for enhanced psychic communication. Or perhaps in the neolithic cosmology, people felt the earth needed infusing with light or the landscape needed infusing with underworld influences.
In Penwith quoits exist in the northern upland half of the peninsula. They are all linked by alignments with sites of a similar age. Most are just three-point alignments, and they have a locational relationship with tors or hills. Most of the quoits are nowadays ruined except for Chûn Quoit. Lanyon Quoit was reconstructed badly in the 19th C, and it no longer resembles its original form.
Mulfra Quoit - decommissioned?
There is a chance some of them were intentionally decommissioned by removing one vertical stone and tilting the capstone off the top, perhaps around 1200 BCE - Mulfra, Zennor and West Lanyon Quoits being possible examples. Why? Because, if they are some sort of energy-generator, which is possible, then a power-source that is not maintained could be dangerous (rather like a nuclear station or an oilwell today).
Impressive in their engineering, quoits were built in the neolithic centuries around 370-3500 BCE. Sperris Quoit has been archaeologically dated to 3600-3300 and Zennor Quoit to 3300-3000 BCE, both of them being near to each other and also aligned with Lanyon Quoit. I would guess that they were both built around roughly the same time.
See also: Quoits
The later neolithic
Trencrom Hill from Marazion
As more land was cleared toward the end of the neolithic in the first half of the 2000s, people's space-perception changed and the tor enclosures became less important as social meeting places. New principles and ideas came into play. The neolithics oriented their chambered cairns to the rising or setting of the sun at solstices and other key times, but the megalith-builders of the transition between the neolithic and bronze age took things much further.
They developed a more advanced mathematics (such as knowledge of the phi ratio and the golden mean), astronomy (eclipse prediction, knowing the size of the earth and understanding the precession of the equinoxes), and new skills in logistics and engineering, medicine and an enhanced agricultural and community life.
This transition was gradual, roughly between 2500 and 2200 - some call this the Copper Age, but its official, cumbersome title is the 'neolithic/bronze age transition', and it's sometimes called the arrival of the 'Beaker influx'. Yet for our megalithic purposes, as argued two pages back (here), the main transition in megalithic can be argued to have taken place around 600 years earlier, around the time of the Piora Oscillation. Following 2900, upcountry and in Ireland and Brittany, the beginnings of the building of the great megalithic monuments (such as Stonehenge and Avebury) were taking place - and, more quietly, they will have been happening in West Penwith too.
Some evidence suggests that many of the megalithic developments that came to define the bronze age started before the transition and the 'Beaker influx', amongst indigenous people. It might even be the case that the immigration of early Celtic people into Britain around 2500 happened because it was seen at the time to be 'a happening place' - in modern terminology, an 'emerging market' or a 'developing economy'.
This growth of a new style of megalith building represented a great leap forward, the culmination of long, slow developments following the Piora Oscillation of around 3200 to roughly 2900 BCE, a period of cold, stormy, wet weather, harvest failures and gruelling times. Worldwide, major changes took place around this time - it was the beginning of dynastic Egypt, the start of the Mayan calendar, and things started lifting off in China, India, Mesopotamia and Mexico. It happened here to, and it became what we call 'the bronze age' - born of a fusion of indigenous culture with the incoming 'Beaker package', an influx of ideas, technologies and people.
The heart of the world
CASPN caring for a neolithic chambered mound at Treen
Landscape features and energy-centres were important to neolithic people simply because they represented here-ness, being at the heart of things. This is demonstrated by the use of Trencrom Hill, Carn Galva, Carn Kenidjack and Carn Brea as hilltop tor enclosures - they were the central places of the time. Everything revolved around them.
This notion of 'here' was important: wherever they were, neolithic people stood at the centre of their universe. They didn't have the same objectivised sense of 'there' or 'everywhere' that we have, thanks to our pictures, maps, TVs and rapid travel.
So the tor enclosures, quoits and mounds were 'super-heres', gravity-centres from which the neolithics' perceived reality-fields radiated. If you stop and sit quietly at an ancient site you can feel this - in a mysterious way, you feel close to the heart of things, at the centre.
The important neolithic sites in Penwith were places such as St Michael's Mount, Carn Galva, Carn Kenidjack, Treryn Dinas, Carn Lês Boel, Gurnard's Head, Maen Castle, St Ives' Head, Cape Cornwall, together with Chûn Castle, Zennor Hill, Chapel Carn Brea, Sancreed Beacon and Lesingey Round. If you were hanging out in Penwith at the time, these would be the hills and headlands you would notice and love, and the places where the best parties happened. They were the special places of the peninsula.
In the case of Chûn Castle, its proximity to Chûn Quoit makes it an obvious neolithic contender - even though subsequent occupation in the bronze and iron ages obliterated most earlier signs of use of this panorama-rich hill. But neolithic remains are there, under the iron age remains.
In the case of the cliff sanctuaries, as prominent seaboard features they were valued by the neolithics not only for their sense of space and enchantment, but also because the early Cornish were fishers, sealers and whalers, egg-collectors and mariners. The sea speaks, and the neolithics listened. When the pilchard shoals or the whales came, they were out in their boats with their harpoons.
These headland interfaces between land and sea, and land and sky, were boundaries between the worlds - threshold places where the worlds met and the veils were thin.
Life had been alright in the 3000s, until the Piora Oscillation suddenly came along. There was stability, the seas were full of fish, the climate was good, and the tor enclosures, cliff castles, quoits and mounds had been built. Then came catastrophe, possible initial famine, and people had to move downhill into the forests and focus on survival. The old days became a memory, a story told around the fire. It felt as if everything had gone wrong.
Things eventually revived, and the people of the late neolithic started gaining momentum. Between 2500 and 2000, the menhirs, barrows and stone circles of Penwith were erected, and Britain went through some centuries of florescence. But it built up during the post-Piora period from around 2800 to 2500 - this is when the ideas formed.
Watch Croft as seen from the Nine Maidens
A digression. I decided some years ago to dowse the dates of the building of ancient sites in Penwith, to see what happened. The results I had for the building of many of the stone circles, menhirs and other 'bronze age' sites came consistently to the 2600s and 2500s - just before the 'Beaker influx', and a few centuries earlier than the conventional archaeological estimate. Boscawen-ûn stone circle dowsed as being built in the 2670s, on a site first used in the 3260s; the Nine Maidens in the 2620s on a site in use since the 3680s; Tregeseal in the 2570s on a site used since the 3660s; and the Merry Maidens in the 2560s, on a site in use since the 3560s. I have not yet reconciled the difference between my dates and the archaeological dates. But it is thought-provoking.
So the neolithic ended on an upswing. One thing that changed was people's attitude toward nature and the world around them. Having come down into the woodlands during the Piora downturn, and engaging in increased woodcraft for construction and heating, woodland clearings grew in size. Though the climate improved during the 2000s, it did not return to neolithic levels. People remained in the woods, the clearings grew in size and started joining up.
A new man-made landscape developed, and people increasingly thought "this is ours". They were not guests in nature as before, but increasingly its shapers and masters, with a growing urge to change the face of the earth and make their lives better. They did not have the bulldozers-and-explosives attitude we have today toward the land, and their constructions - the megalithic sites - sought to harmonise heaven with earth. But there had been a shift.
This late neolithic period, up to 2500, gave birth to the culture of the bronze age, born of a national revival pumped up with an influx of new ideas and people - the Beaker package. In the later 2000s Britain became a nation, even one of the world's leading civilisations (and there were a good few at the time). West Penwith was a node in the Atlantic coast network of megalithic regions, and by the late 2000s its tin was being bought by the Minoans of Crete. And since every time of history has its crop of relentless travellers, there's a chance that Minoan or Egyptian or early Berber might even have been heard at St Michael's Mount.