The Bronze Age
The megalithic period in Cornwall covered 2,500 years from roughly 3700 BCE to around 1200 BCE, crossing the neolithic and bronze ages. The bronze age began around 2500-2300 and peaked around 2000-1800: this is the time of the stone circles and standing stones.
Trevean 1 propped standing stone
The notion of a bronze age is misleading. The rise of the use of bronze around 2300 was important - though in Penwith bronze was worked only from 1800 BCE, up to then being imported. But this is not the same issue as our core subject, Cornish megalithic civilisation and the worldview lying behind it. In this regard, new megalithic developments had been incubating for around 500 years before the bronze age began.
The bronze age is currently dated from around 2300 to around 800 BCE, and this timespan can be divided into three, the first two of which are megalithically relevant. The early bronze age lasted until around 1800, the middle until 1200 and late until 800-600 - followed by the iron age.
The peak of early bronze age civilisation around 2200-1800 BCE represented a zenith in British history and the high-point of the megalithic era. Then things cruised along for 300ish years until 1500ish. The period from 1500 to 1200 was, from the viewpoint of megalithic culture, a time of stagnation - increasingly it saw the rather sclerotic observance of a tradition rather than a vibrant culture, and it led eventually to a breakdown around 1200 BCE. Megalithic sites became peripheral to people's lives. In the late bronze age from 1200 onwards, megalithic culture and all that went with it were dead and gone.
The late megalithic period
Carn Galva from Bartinney Castle
Back in the neolithic, in the early megalithic period, living in the northern uplands of Penwith made sense since the climate was warm, at times steamy in the woods - like Dordogne in France today. Leafy, shady, mixed forest covered much of the lowlands, re-growing quickly whenever cleared. Even the Isle of Scilly was wooded in those times (and unpopulated except for occasional visitors dropping by).
Living in the forest had advantages, providing foods and materials. But the uplands were cooler, more open, less damp, with less undergrowth and a better view, and the children were safer from wild boars, bears or wolves. So, although people moved around during the course of the year, they lived mostly in the northern uplands of Belerion.
The situation changed during the Piora Oscillation. This sudden climatic downturn drove people downhill, pushing them into more serious survival-farming, building and resourcing firewood and food. This changed the nature of the woodland as a result of increasing clearance and occupation, also altering people's landscape perception by increasing the extent of clearings and making some areas more accessible, open and, thus, 'ours'. Clearing forest has an enormous psychological impact, since the imprinting on nature of man's interventions makes it more a property and less a wildland in which people felt they were guests.
Perhaps there was a feeling of the past being left behind, of a simpler time of subsistence and tradition coming to an end. More serious farming, landscape management and engineering works were the order of the day.
The Piora Oscillation started with barren, threatening years or decades - colder, darker and more stormy. People worked hard to survive. There might have been years of famine and food shortage. Piora had big effects on the landscape and on people's lives. Wood was felled for firewood and construction, and newly-cleared spaces were used for grazing and growing. This was a matter of mastering composting, drainage and rock clearance - capital investment and hard labour, much of it done collectively.
Men an Tol
Arguably, with this came a new kind of eco-religiosity, bringing together soil fertility, stock and plant breeding and farming with a magical approach toward weather, season, time and survival. Astronomy-astrology and geomancy became key elements of knowledge needed for survival - knowledge of energy movements in time and space.
This stimulated a shift of cultural attitude. Once woodland is cleared and land is tamed, it becomes 'our space'. People's attitudes change subtly. Instead of feeling like subjects of nature in its vastness they felt a little more like owners and masters of their world. This was a critical shift of outlook, taking place in Britain in the mid-2000s BCE.
This incremental historic process - some call it the rise of patriarchy - was to last millennia, up to today, with key crunch-points - one being around 3000 BCE at the time of the Piora Oscillation. This time marked the roughly simultaneous endpoint and launch-point of many ancient civilisations worldwide, even though they had but small amounts of cultural contact between some of them - there have always been wanderers, migrants and exiles.
The megalithic period ends
Double menhirs at Faughan Round
Another break point took place at the end of the megalithic period, going critical around 1200 BCE, at the beginning of the late bronze age. This was a social-cultural shift, though deteriorating climate was involved, turning wetter and colder. It was preceded by roughly three centuries where the megalithic traditions of the past were observed, though increasingly they were something of the past, something the older generations harked back to, and a new impetus was gaining momentum instead.
One crucial catalyst of this change was probably the increasing use of bronze. It made blades, spades, axes, needles, ornaments and other tools and paraphernalia so much more durable, sharp and useful. This increased productivity and, for those who had bronze items, wealth - greater farm yields, more hunted seals and boars, better woodwork possibilities and a host of other benefits. It looked rather like gold but it was harder.
The megalithic era ended around 1200 but the bronze age continued until the dawning of the iron age around 800 BCE. The late bronze age was one of worsening, wetter climate, loss of interest in the ways of the past, material development, increasing territoriality, social stratification, signs of growing insecurity and increasing elite power-accumulation.
In the long megalithic period between 3700 and roughly 1500 BCE the impetus was to act on the world in the hope of enhancing the natural order, and there was sophisticated science to the way they did it. This was not the competition with nature that evolved later, though things were moving that way. People were becoming increasingly interventionist and Penwith's population reached many thousands, moulding the world according to human preference - though there was still an attitude of cooperation with nature and the gods and spirits.
Carn Galva as seen from the Pipers menhirs (telephoto)
So this long post-Piora period could be divided into four chapters:
- 2900-2300 BCE, the buildup;
- 2300-1800, the zenith;
- 1800-1500, the slow decline; and
- 1500-1200, the fall, and new changes coming about.
During much of this period, Britain was tribally and regionally organised, yet overall it had a common culture stretching from Cornwall to the Shetlands. Demonstrated skill-levels, advanced thinking and common threads across Britain and Ireland imply the presence of a druidic, aristocratic and artisan elite whose connections were national.
This culture was linked to that in Ireland, Brittany, Galicia, Portugal and the Atlantic coast of Scandinavia. West Penwith's culture was greatly influenced by its maritime connections. It stood at the heart of this Atlantic coast maritime culture. Bronze age boats were by now built of wood, with big sails, and the rough seas of the Atlantic were generally handled well by experienced sailors. There was considerable traffic between Penwith (Sennen Beach and Priest's Cove by Cape Cornwall) and the Isle of Scilly (it was mainly one big island and a smaller one at St Agnes). They will nevertheless have chosen their sailing days carefully, mostly in summertime.
The megalithic inheritance
Mên an Tol
Around 3700-3500 BCE a system of backbone alignments between major neolithic sites such as tors and cliff sanctuaries had been established. Sites such as quoits and early chambered cairns were built to create or reinforce those alignments, and this method was bequeathed to the bronze age. It formed the basis upon which many significant sites were later located during the bronze age zenith.
The system of backbone alignments is anchored to the neolithic tor sites and cliff sanctuaries which, as suggested elsewhere, were significant sites during the 3000s.
All of Penwith's surviving bronze age stone circles, together with other nodal sites such as Lanyon Quoit and the Botrea Barrows, are located on these backbone alignments. The alignments formed the geomantic foundation upon which the bronze age system of ancient sites in Penwith was built. The structure of the backbone system was drawn from nature and topography, while nevertheless acting as a framework for a man-made geoengineering project in the bronze age.
Nodal sites were placed into this framework, including the stone circles, Lanyon Quoit, Botrea Barrows, plus a few menhirs such as Carfury, the Pipers or the Drift menhirs, and cairns such as Numphra. Then more menhirs, barrows, stones and enclosures were erected to extrapolate the system, all of them plugged into the network - that is, aligned with other sites. They were installed for a variety of purposes, terrestrial, astronomical and geomantic.
As explained here, these alignments are not energy-lines: they are simply individual sites aligned with each other. They were aligned for a purpose that we, in our time, do not understand. Their locations were determined by other factors too, and in every ancient site a number of factors seem to interlock.
Geomancy was one of the ancients' core subjects: megalithic feng shui. Another was astrology - not about birth charts and personal fortunes, but concerning the nature and passage of time, its interpretation and its effects on the land, the sea, wildlife and the welfare of tribes. The physical and the metaphysical were seen as a unity.
Prelude to the bronze age
The bronze age brought us menhirs, stone circles and a plethora of barrows, sacred enclosures and other structures. It was the second phase of the megalithic era.
This second phase slowly gained momentum from around 2800 BCE onward after the Piora Oscillation, which started suddenly around 3200 BCE, tapering off over a period of 200-300 years. In Cornwall it drew a line between what had gone before and what came after.
This forced the Cornish to change and adapt, obliging a battening down and survival struggle lasting at least ten generations. Things gradually improved thereafter. Longterm this downturn progressed to an eventual cultural ascendancy, growth of population and prosperity during the 800 years or so that followed. New people and influences moved into Britain from abroad around 2500, adding to this upward trend.
By the late 2000s the climate had become marginally warmer and more pleasant than it is today - drier, warmer and with fewer rainy, windy Atlantic depressions than nowadays (they went north of Britain). People in outlying areas of Britain like Cornwall, Arran, the Outer Hebrides and the Orkneys were not, by the look of the evidence, poor crofters eking a meagre living out of a harsh, poor landscape. Even remote St Kilda had been occupied in the late neolithic. The earliest stage of building Avebury and Stonehenge - the henge or bank-and-ditch stage - took place just after 2900 BCE, as the Piora Oscillation was easing.
The Merry Maidens stone circle
The basis of the megalithic developments of the bronze age were trialled and conceptualised in the neolithic. Even when new immigrants came in, the bronze age megalithic culture was a grafting of indigenous ways and incoming influences from abroad.
The Piora downturn had focused minds, obliging innovation and improvisation, initially for survival but later becoming more creative, innovative and developmental. Perhaps people felt that something had gone seriously wrong, feeling an imperative to put it right - hence their growing interest in geomancy, astronomy, subtle energy-engineering and the harmonising of heaven and earth. In their perception, it must have been practical and beneficial to go to the trouble of building so many ancient sites - the primary infrastructure of the time.
Much of the peninsula was draped with forest. This changed with the Piora Oscillation, when woodland retreated downhill and human clearance and fuel-burning increased. Then, by around 2500-2200 BCE, the stone circles were built, on sites probably known and revered long before.
The neolithic ended and the bronze age phased itself in between 2500 and 2300 BCE. Yet the social-cultural impetus had begun earlier from 2900 BCE. So the six-century period of 2900 to 2300 BCE, from the end of the Piora downturn to the bronze age lift-off, might be regarded as a distinct period, from a megalithic cultural viewpoint. It brought the cumulative ascendancy of megalithic culture, and all that went with it.
The evolving situation in Britain was greatly affected by the influx of what's called the 'beaker package' around 2500, a wave of ideas, technologies and people arriving from Brittany, Iberia, Rhineland and the Danube regions. Its origination point long before was in the Tagus region of Portugal (around today's Lisbon), spreading up to Brittany, and from there across to Rhineland and also direct up to Ireland and western Britain. Spreading quite quickly around Britain, it was a modernising influence. Here lies the probable origin of the Celtic culture and languages.
Part of the beaker package was the introduction of the use of copper, of which West Penwith had good deposits, together with tin. In the early days, gold and copper were available by picking around in the ground and the streams, such as between Sennen, St Just and Botallack - deep mining hadn't yet developed (for this, hard steel tools and explosives were needed).
Then streaming was added as a technique. This involves channelling and re-routing streams to loosen and erode valley banks, exposing gold and copper grains and nodules that then were panned, sorted and smelted. Many of these metals seem at first to have been exported in ingots to Ireland, Britain and the continent, only later to become a local metal forging and craft industry.
With this metal technology came new advances in husbandry, land-improvement, carpentry, building, medicine and many other things, with increasing social and skill specialisation, general material increase, new seed and animal stocks and new ideas. This was the 'beaker package'.
Megalithic knowledge also developed alongside this, becoming more scientific, through a class of proto-druids, bards and ovates, crossing the boundaries of tribe and locality, many of them probably mendicant. Their knowledge in astronomy, geometry, mathematics, engineering, geomancy and physics suggests specialist, advanced and inspired theoretical thinking. Separate yet parallel developments took place roughly simultaneously in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Crete, Persia, Pakistan (Harappa), China, Mexico and the Andes.
Penwith gained a lot of traction when metallurgy arrived around 2000 BCE, increasing its wealth, contacts and centrality. As the bronze age unfolded, the peninsula became prosperous and more densely populated, woodland clearance increased and field systems were established. But people still moved around on an annual round and lived relatively lightly. They were culturally advanced yet they kept their material life relatively simple. Except that they engaged increasingly in megalith-building.
The Pipers SW menhir, Merry Maidens
Radically new lines of thought formed the basis of the high megalithic era, lasting roughly four centuries from 2200 to 1800ish BCE.
Some thinkers work on the basis that megalithic thinking was fuelled by ancient knowledge coming from a former time. Certainly the speed with which advanced theoretical thinking seemed to emerge raises big questions, suggesting either a remarkable wave of inspired genius or a transmission of specialist knowledge from earlier times.
This issue highlights a key contrast in ways of thinking or paradigms: most people subscribe to a Darwinian evolutionary view of history, characterised by an ascendancy of humankind from relative simplicity to increasing cleverness and complexity - and here we stand today, at the peak of evolution. Meanwhile geomancers subscribe to a model of early received knowledge which, over time, gradually deteriorated, bringing with it a loss of spiritual sophistication and knowledge. This is a matter of ongoing debate, and both paradigms are probably partially true.
There wasn't a clear shift from the neolithic to the bronze age but a transition lasting a couple of centuries around 2500-2300 BCE, marking the first phase of the bronze age. The beaker package is named after a style of pottery accompanying this influx, and with it came copper metallurgy and much else - including the beginning of alcohol consumption as a social practice (previously it was used in a more sacramental sense). Up to then, available intoxicants were hemp, opium, psilocybin and herbal and mushroom decoctions.
Once thought of as a major influx of 'beaker people' from the continent, it is now thought that this influx comprised artisans, travellers and thinkers more than whole tribes of incomers. This remains a matter of debate, fuelled by the discovery in genetics that the gene stock of the British went through a substantial change at this time. It was a cultural grafting and interchange, and ideas and trends percolated in the other direction too.
A second phase of the bronze age arose around 2250-1950. There was building, clearance, population growth, economic and cultural development, making Britain one of the world's leading cultures of the time. There were no great cities, but it was a sophisticated culture that understood Pythagorian mathematics two millennia before Pythagoras. The megalithic age was in full swing, and this and the next phase marked the zenith of Penwith's bronze age, when the system of ancient sites around Penwith was integrated into a wholeness.
In the third phase, from around 1950 to 1700ish, Britain became a cultural exporter. Its crafts, metals and ideas spread through Europe and to the Mediterranean sphere. Penwith was involved, with its maritime connections, especially because of its metals trade.
Tin was a high-value commodity, being relatively rare. It was a key hardening ingredient in the forging of bronze, which is 88% copper and 12% tin, and Cornish tin (particularly from the area around Botallack and St Just in Penwith) had a trademark arsenic content. This has allowed archaeologists to discover that Penwith's market stretched as far as the East Mediterranean, Rhineland and the Baltic.
Since money did not exist at that time, wealth came in the form of a rich variety of exchanged goods, since tin ingots were valuable items. Trade was carried out by a kind of ritualised mutual gifting by which future good relations were encouraged when both partners were happy with the exchange.
Tin trading made West Penwith central, strategic and prosperous. The trading focused on St Michael's Mount, Porth Ledden (the bay between Cape Cornwall and Cape Kenidjack), Lelant, Carnsew hillfort near Hayle, and St Ives.
Penwith became one of the more significant megalithic areas in the Isles of Britain, together with about twelve other concentrations such as Dartmoor, the Mendips-Cotswolds, Salisbury Plain, Mynydd Preseli in SW Wales, Powys-Shropshire, the Peak District, Cumbria, Arran, Argyll, Aberdeenshire, the Outer Hebrides and the Orkneys and Shetlands.
In the southwest there were three distinct main areas of ancient activity: West Penwith, Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor - all granite uplands with cultural and environmental similarities.
The bronze age zenith
Gateway propped stone at Carn Lês Boel
Something clearly drove bronze age people to do the engineering they did. There was an elegant system to the layout of the megalithic landscape.
It had a complex rationale, concerning marking out space with structures and encapsulating time and cyclicity into that system of structures. It was sophisticated, deliberate, rooted in a consistent philosophy lasting over two millennia, and it clearly had a purpose.
In the neolithic, people generally established their sacred sites where they felt best, fitting in with nature in an intuitive manner. In the bronze age they took this intuitive geomancy as their basis yet they applied a more sophisticated megalithic scientific system to it. They started building menhirs and barrows to fit them into a wider system, no longer simply because those specific locations felt intuitively right.
In many bronze age sites in Penwith locational influences are complex and subtle: visit Boscawen-ûn or the Merry Maidens and their positioning is not immediately obvious. They appear to us to be plonked rather randomly in the landscape, on slopes without the best of views, though this is not actually the case on further inspection.
They sit atop blind springs, as part of larger complexes of sites, with sightlines to hills and other sites, and they act as alignment intersections, embodying astronomical factors and sometimes having incredible landscape placing - visible mainly when one is actually at the exact site itself. Megalithic science was intricate, synergistic and complex.
Many sites are located in places that might not in themselves be obvious, yet they are placed there according to a wider sense of landscape geometry and locational appropriateness. Thus, while Bartinney Castle, on top of a hill, makes sense in its location, nearby Caer Brân downhill from there makes much less sense. It has a good panoramic view, though inside its banks you hardly see it - the height of the banks follows the surrounding horizon. In other words, Caer Brân was placed there for complex reasons.
Watch Croft menhir (centre, trig point on right), from Mên an Tol
While the cairn on top of Penwith's highest hill, Watch Croft, makes sense, the location of the menhir slightly downhill from it doesn't make much sense when you're there. But when it is seen from Mên an Tol it is highlighted on the horizon (nowadays accompanied by a relatively modern trig point). It was placed there because of its sighting significance as seen from other sites lower down. The menhir's placing is thus complex - it might be astronomically based, as seen from Mên an Tol, originally a stone circle.
There is a lot more to decipher in understanding megalithic science. Some progress has been made nationally, especially with the geometry of stone circles, and archaeo-astronomical and other locational factors. But this is yet to be done systematically in Penwith. More work needs to be done on the geometry of the placing of sites and on systematically dowsing and surveying underground water and subtle energy. The aim here is to penetrate the minds of the megalith builders, to understand more about their thoughts, beliefs and intentions by studying the patterns in what they left behind.
Many ancient sites and alignments in West Penwith come from the ascendancy and zenith of the bronze age, between about 2500 and 1800 BCE. A comprehensive geoengineering system was built. Penwith's specific advantages over other areas were its maritime location, its tin deposits, the crystalline nature of its largely granitic rocks, and also its genetic inheritance. Even today, Penwith's indigenous gene stock contains a larger proportion than many areas in Britain of genetic patterns from very ancient times. In this respect Penwith is even marginally different from that of the rest of Cornwall.
Ring of power
The Merry Maidens
Something was mastered during the bronze age: para-technological breakthroughs in harmonising the relationship between people and their natural and spiritual environment. This vision of relative harmony is what interests people today.
A concept used by some anthropologists and students of ancient societies is the ring of power. This is a virtuous cycle of mutually reinforcing customs, consensus, ethics, kinship, solidarity, mutuality and cooperation that can form in societies with low levels of social alienation, high group coherence and relatively clear shared moral values - not just institutional but societal.
What permits such social synergy is mutual trust, practical cooperation and communal convergence. This allows social triumphs to happen and it builds a field of shared support and protection that holds up even when under duress.
When the 'ring of power' breaks down the results can be tragic and terrible - this is witnessed in the rapid urbanisation and modernisation of many developing societies today, bringing the breakdown of village communities, kinship structures and social support systems. Individuals suddenly find themselves alone to fend for themselves. On a collective emotional level, such breakdowns represent traumatic periods within the psyche of humanity and for specific ethnic groups.
The stronger usually gain from this while the weaker are left to an uncertain fate. Sometimes it leads to civil war or to social disintegration - criminality, abuse, destitution, intoxication and corruption. It can also lead to materialism, economic growth and conspicuous consumption as compensatory activities, together with a hardening of social values, increased stratification and a weakening of society. This leads us to the downfall of the megalithic period.
Decline and fall
By 1700 BCE the megalithic impetus was slowing, after 500 years of development. Few ancient sites were built thereafter and a new dynamic entered society: by degrees people began to impose themselves on the land and on each other, pursuing greater material security and losing impetus for megalith building and all that went with it. Or perhaps the megalithic system was complete. Or perhaps times simply moved on. Or perhaps something was going wrong.
Nevertheless, society continued along traditional lines for at least two centuries more, but something was changing underneath.
From around 1500 the climate grew cooler and wetter, forcing a lot more agricultural work to maintain crop yields and food stocks. A cultural change around this time brought a shift of societal beliefs and values. There was pressure on land, deterioration of social relations and craft quality, growth of unrest and increasing material preoccupation.
Across Eurasia this was the emergent 'axial age', a millennium of transition between the time of the ancient civilisations up to around 1500 BCE and that of the later empires, gaining impetus from around 500 BCE onwards, particularly in Greece/Rome, Persia, India and China.
In Cornwall land was being divided up and capital improvements grew - land enclosure, wall-building, clearing, levelling, crop-rotation, building. The field systems around Zennor, still visible today, were established around this time. Farming moved from sufficiency farming, catering to modest needs, toward more 'maximiser' farming, seeking to build up and store surpluses and to use farm products in trading, feasting and gift-exchange. It became a bit less cooperative and a bit more privatised, especially for people higher up in society.
Horses came into use, dogs were trained for hunting and shepherding and animal breeds were refined. Weapons became more common. Here begins the subsequent British obsession with 'private property'.
But old traditions and beliefs continued, even though people subscribed less to them. Younger generations had their own ideas. People's focus was shifting. When the dynamics of self-interest start entering society, they have a viral effect, ricocheting through social situations, causing a painful social tightening and reactivity, a growth of distrust, insensitivity and alienation, a feeling of being let down, even violated. It's a defensive retraction of goodwill and relatedness.
These dynamics have come in waves throughout history, but in this critical instance the 'ring of power' binding Cornish people together was crucially weakened. Somewhere around 1200 BCE there was a downfall and collapse of a social order and a whole reality. It probably happened quite quickly once it started. A new social configuration was developing, dominated increasingly by chiefs and aristocracies. Everyone started seeing things differently.
The national connectedness of earlier times deteriorated, and there was a breakage of the magical enchantment that lay at the heart of the megalithic worldview. This was the collapse of a vision and a perception of reality - one that saw things as beings, that sensed the psyche of nature and strove to engage deeply with it. Ownership and control were now entering the arena. Self-preservation was taking over.
Megalithic society had no doubt been imperfect, and life had had its problems and rigours. But there was a certain community cohesion and consensus to it, evidenced in the ancient sites bronze age society left behind. Society had mores, traditions and implicit agreements, with unspoken social contracts incorporating a sense of obligation between that lay people, nature and the divine.
Yet the magic was broken, megalithic sites lost much of their meaning and people got on with other things. Land was reapportioned, farming methods changed, there were increasing signs of sacrifices (such as treasures thrown into rivers), presumably to propitiate the gods; there was an increase in cremation of the dead and in weapons production, and a rise of warrior elites and patron-client social arrangements. The clans survived but they became more hierarchical.
Climate also deteriorated further. Around 1159-1141 (dated dendochronologically) there was a volcanic eruption somewhere (again, Hekla in Iceland is a candidate), bringing colder conditions, increased cloud and rainfall, crop failure and abandonment of marginal land - though much less than with the Piora Oscillation. Things later improved, but around 1000 BCE a longer term climatic change, with cooler and wetter weather, set in. Overall productivity of the land and human wellbeing declined. Life in Britain went through a downturn lasting until around 600 BCE.
The megalithic era was gone. It was the end of a long era. The bronze age passed into the iron age.